# Data Examples

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• Lists
• Objects

### Exercise: Is it ordered?

Is a linked list ordered from least to greatest?

def ordered(s):

True
False
False
"""

### Exercise: Is it ordered? (Solution)

Is a linked list ordered from least to greatest?

def ordered(s, key=lambda x: x):

True
False
False
"""
return True
elif s.first > s.rest.first:
return False
else:
return ordered(s.rest)

### Exercise: Is it ordered? Part 2

Is it ordered when a key function is applied, like abs?

def ordered(s, key=lambda x: x):

True
False
False
True
True
False
"""

### Exercise: Is it ordered? Part 2 (Solution)

Is it ordered when a key function is applied, like abs?

def ordered(s, key=lambda x: x):

True
False
False
True
True
False
"""
return True
elif key(s.first) > key(s.rest.first):
return False
else:
return ordered(s.rest)

### Exercise: Sorted merged list

Create a sorted Link containing all the elements of two sorted Links.

+ =

def merge(s, t):
"""Return a sorted Link containing the elements of sorted s & t.

>>> merge(a, b)
>>> a
>>> b
"""

### Exercise: Sorted merged list (Solution)

Create a sorted Link containing all the elements of two sorted Links.

+ =

def merge(s, t):
"""Return a sorted Link containing the elements of sorted s & t.

>>> merge(a, b)
>>> a
>>> b
"""
return t
return s
elif s.first <= t.first:
else:

### Exercise: Sorted merged list II

This time, do it without creating any new Link objects.

+ =

def merge_in_place(s, t):
"""Return a sorted Link containing the elements of sorted s & t.

>>> merge_in_place(a, b)
>>> a
>>> b
"""

### Exercise: Sorted merged list II (Solution)

This time, do it without creating any new Link objects.

+ =

def merge_in_place(s, t):
"""Return a sorted Link containing the elements of sorted s & t.

>>> merge_in_place(a, b)
>>> a
>>> b
"""
return t
return s
elif s.first <= t.first:
s.rest = merge_in_place(s.rest, t)
return s
else:
t.rest = merge_in_place(s, t.rest)
return t

## Iterables & Iterators

### Exercise: Find indices

What are the indices of all elements in a list that have the smallest absolute value?

[-4, -3, -2,  3,  2,  4]  → [2, 4]
0   1   2   3   4   5

[ 1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6]  → [0]
0   1   2   3   4   5

def min_abs_indices(s):
"""Indices of all elements in list s that have the smallest absolute value.

>>> min_abs_indices([-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4])
[2, 4]
>>> min_abs_indices([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
[0]
"""

### Exercise: Find indices (Solution)

What are the indices of all elements in a list that have the smallest absolute value?

[-4, -3, -2,  3,  2,  4]  → [2, 4]
0   1   2   3   4   5

[ 1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6]  → [0]
0   1   2   3   4   5

def min_abs_indices(s):
"""Indices of all elements in list s that have the smallest absolute value.

>>> min_abs_indices([-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4])
[2, 4]
>>> min_abs_indices([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
[0]
"""
min_abs = min(map(abs, s))
return list(filter(lambda i: abs(s[i]) == min_abs, range(len(s))))
# OR
return [i for i in range(len(s)) if abs(s[i]) == min_abs]

### Exercise: Largest sum

What's the largest sum of two adjacent elements in a list? (Assume length > 1)

[-4,  -3,  -2,   3,   2,   4]  → 6
-7    -5    1    5    6

[-4,   3,  -2,  -3,   2,   -4]  → 1
-1    1    -5   -1   -2

"""Largest sum of two adjacent elements in a list s.

>>> largest_adj_sum([-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4])
6
>>> largest_adj_sum([-4, 3, -2, -3, 2, -4])
1
"""

### Exercise: Largest sum (Solution)

What's the largest sum of two adjacent elements in a list? (Assume length > 1)

[-4,  -3,  -2,   3,   2,   4]  → 6
-7    -5    1    5    6

[-4,   3,  -2,  -3,   2,   -4]  → 1
-1    1    -5   -1   -2

"""Largest sum of two adjacent elements in a list s.

>>> largest_adj_sum([-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4])
6
>>> largest_adj_sum([-4, 3, -2, -3, 2, -4])
1
"""
return max([x + y for x, y in zip(s[:-1], s[1:])])
# OR
return max([s[i] + s[i + 1] for i in range(len(s) - 1)])
# OR
return max(map(lambda i: s[i] + s[i + 1], range(len(s) - 1)))

### Exercise: Digits dictionary

Create a dictionary mapping each digit d to the lists of elements in s that end with d.

[5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89] → {1: [21], 3: [13], 4: [34], 5: [5, 55], 8: [8], 9: [89]}

def digit_dict(s):
"""Map each digit d to the lists of elements in s that end with d.

>>> digit_dict([5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89])
{1: [21], 3: [13], 4: [34], 5: [5, 55], 8: [8], 9: [89]}
"""

### Exercise: Digits dictionary (Solution)

Create a dictionary mapping each digit d to the lists of elements in s that end with d.

[5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89] → {1: [21], 3: [13], 4: [34], 5: [5, 55], 8: [8], 9: [89]}

def digit_dict(s):
"""Map each digit d to the lists of elements in s that end with d.

>>> digit_dict([5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89])
{1: [21], 3: [13], 4: [34], 5: [5, 55], 8: [8], 9: [89]}
"""
return {i: [x for x in s if x % 10 == i]
for i in range(10) if any([x % 10 == i for x in s])}
# OR
last_digits = list(map(lambda x: x % 10, s))
return {i: [x for x in s if x % 10 == i]
for i in range(10) if i in last_digits}

### Exercise: Element comparer

Does every element equal some other element in s?

[-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4] → False
[4, 3, 2, 3, 2, 4]    → True

def all_have_an_equal(s):
"""Does every element equal some other element in s?

>>> all_have_an_equal([-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4])
False
>>> all_have_an_equal([4, 3, 2, 3, 2, 4])
True
"""

### Exercise: Element comparer (Solution)

Does every element equal some other element in s?

[-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4] → False
[4, 3, 2, 3, 2, 4]    → True

def all_have_an_equal(s):
"""Does every element equal some other element in s?

>>> all_have_an_equal([-4, -3, -2, 3, 2, 4])
False
>>> all_have_an_equal([4, 3, 2, 3, 2, 4])
True
"""
return min([sum([1 for y in s if x == y]) for x in s]) > 1
# OR
return all([s[i] in s[:i] + s[i+1:] for i in range(len(s))])
# OR
return all(map(lambda x: s.count(x) > 1, s))

## Lists in environment diagrams

### List operations

Starting from:

s = [2, 3]
t = [5, 6]

Operation Example Result
append adds one element to a list

s.append(t)
t = 0

s → [2, 3, [5, 6]]
t → 0

extend adds all elements in one list to another list

s.extend(t)
t[1] = 0

s → [2, 3, 5, 6]
t → [5, 0]

addition & slicing create new lists containing existing elements

a = s + [t]
b = a[1:]
a[1] = 9
b[1][1] = 0

s → [2, 3]
t → [5, 0]
a → [2, 9, [5, 0]]
b → [3, [5, 0]]

### List operations

Starting from:

s = [2, 3]
t = [5, 6]

Operation Example Result
The list constructor also creates a new list containing existing elements

t = list(s)
s[1] = 0

s → [2, 0]
t → [2, 3]

slice assignment replaces a slice with new values

s[0:0] = t
s[3:] = t
t[1] = 0

s → [5, 6, 2, 5, 6]
t → [5, 0]

### Lists in lists

t = [1, 2, 3]
t[1:3] = [t]
t.extend(t)

t = [[1, 2], [3, 4]]
t[0].append(t[1:2])

## Objects

### Santa's helpers

class Elf:
greeting = 'Boss'
def __init__(self):
self.shelf = Elf
def work(self):
return self.greeting + ', I toil all day'
def __repr__(self):
return Santa.greeting

class Santa(Elf):
greeting = 'Elfie'
def work(self):
print(Elf.work(self))
return 'My job is to break into kid\'s homes!'

jack = Elf()
klaus = Santa()

>>> Elf().work()
'Boss, I toil all day'
>>> jack
Elfie
>>> jack.work()
'Your Jollyness, I toil all day'
>>> klaus.work()
Elfie, I toil all day
"My job is to break into kid's homes!"
>>> klaus.shelf.work(klaus)
'Elfie, I toil all day'

## Python Project of The Day!

### Outreachy

Outreachy: An organization that provides internships in open source to people subject to systemic bias and impacted by underrepresentation in the technical industry where they are living.

Website written in Django, a popular Python web framework.

Github repository