This is a study guide with links to past lectures, assignments, and handouts, as well as additional practice problems to assist you in learning the concepts.
Important: For solutions to these assignments once they have been released, see the main website
Mutation is the act of changing a value's attributes. Previously, we've seen immutable values like numbers and strings. Every time we work with numbers and strings, Python creates an entirely new number or string to represent the result.
n = 0 def no_effect(n): n += 1 no_effect(n)
no_effect(n) doesn't affect the value of
n in the global frame.
In constrast, mutable values can change existing attributes. Changes to
mutable values are globally-visible: any name which references that value will
see the same changes. The list
l can be mutated which will be seen in the
l =  def effective(l): l.append(1) effective(l)
Mutation is dangerous! It's not necessarily clear just from the function call
effective(l) that our own
l will be changed. When designing systems, we
often prefer to write in a more functional style that makes it clear when the
value of a name might change.
l =  def add_one(l): return l +  l = add_one(l)
The re-assignment to
l makes it clear that the value of
l might change,
whereas, in the previous example, we would need to be a lot more careful with
remembering whether or not
effective mutates the values we pass to it.
What further complicates the situation is that not all operations are
mutative! Some operations on lists, like
append, will mutate the original
list. But many other operations, like the
+ operator, will create a new list.
Lists are a type of mutable sequence. Because lists are also compound values, we represent them in environment diagrams with a pointer just like we do with function values.
>>> a = [1, 2, 3] >>> b = a >>> b.append(4) >>> a [1, 2, 3, 4] >>> b [1, 2, 3, 4]
In this example, both
b refer to the same underlying list so changes
to the list are visible to both names.
Two separate lists that have the same contents are equal but not necessarily identical. It could be the case that we happen to have two copies of a list with the exact same elements.
>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4] >>> b = [1, 2, 3] >>> b.append(4) >>> b [1, 2, 3, 4] >>> a == b True >>> a is b False
The following is a list of common expressions which mutate the original
While nowhere near complete, it covers the majority of the cases you should be
familiar with. Come up with examples in Python Tutor to learn how each
expression affects the list.
Index and slice replacement
lst[i] = elem
lst[i:j] = seq
lst += lstbut not
lst = lst + lst
And a few expressions which create new lists.
lst + lst
lst * n
nonlocal keyword tells Python to modify the binding in the nearest
non-global parent frame rather than the current local frame. More formally, our
environment diagram rules change slightly.
- Evaluate the expression to the right of the assignment operator
nonlocal, find the nearest parent frame which contains the name but not including the global frame. If not
nonlocal, use the current local frame. (Note that it is a syntax error if the
nonlocalkeyword is used and the name doesn't exist in a non-global parent frame.)
- Bind the variable name to the value of the expression in the frame. Be sure you override the variable name if it had a previous binding.
nonlocal only slightly modifies Python's execution rules, it has a big
effect on how we reason about programs. Before
nonlocal and mutable values,
we've only written pure functions, or functions that, when called, have no
effects other than returning a value. The most useful consequence of writing
pure functions is that they are referentially transparency. In other words,
they can be entirely replaced by the value that they return, without any change
in the behavior of the program.
def add(x, y): return x + y add(1, add(2, 3)) == add(1, 5) == 6
Referential transparency is important because of how we've approached concepts in this course. We can trust that a recursive call will return the right result because of how we can imagine replacing the recursive call with its return value.
nonlocal, we can no longer rely upon this behavior. The same call to a
function at different times in a program can produce different results.
def cumulative_adder(x): def add(y): nonlocal x x += y return x return add add = cumulative_adder(1) add(1) add(1) add(1)
We can now start to view functions as objects that can change over time, which allows for greater control, but makes our programs harder to understand.
Isomorphic Quiz Questions
Q1: Nonlocal Environment Diagram
Draw the environment diagram that results from running the following code.
def moon(f): sun = 0 moon = [sun] def run(x): nonlocal sun, moon def sun(sun): return [sun] y = f(x) moon.append(sun(y)) return moon and moon return run moon(lambda x: moon)(1)
After you've done it on your own, generate an environment diagram in python tutor to check your answer.
Draw the environment diagram that results from executing the following code.
def three(x): three = [x]*3 nine = [three]*3 def what(x): nonlocal what, three, nine three[x] += 1 three = [[x]]*3 nine[x] = three[x] def what(b): if b: return sum(nine) return sum(nine) return x + what(nine[x] is three[x-1]) return what three(2)(2)
Q3: Funny Adder
Predict what Python will display when the following lines are typed into the interpreter:
>>> def make_funny_adder(n): ... def adder(x): ... if x == 'new': ... nonlocal n ... n = n + 1 ... else: ... return x + n ... return adder >>> h = make_funny_adder(3) >>> h(5)______8>>> j = make_funny_adder(7) >>> j(5)______12>>> h('new') >>> h(5)______9
Q4: List Accumulator
Although we can't change variables outside of our frame without a
statement, we can update values stored in mutatable objects in parent frames.
Define a function
make_accumulator that returns an
which takes one numerical argument and returns the sum of all arguments ever
accumulator. Use a
list and not a
def make_accumulator(): """Return an accumulator function that takes a single numeric argument and accumulates that argument into total, then returns total. >>> acc = make_accumulator() >>> acc(15) 15 >>> acc(10) 25 >>> acc2 = make_accumulator() >>> acc2(7) 7 >>> acc3 = acc2 >>> acc3(6) 13 >>> acc2(5) 18 >>> acc(4) 29 """"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"total =  def accumulator(amount): total += amount return total return accumulator
Q5: Nonlocal Accumulator
Now, define a function
make_accumulator_nonlocal that returns an
accumulator function, which takes one numerical argument and returns
the sum of all arguments ever passed to
accumulator. Use a
def make_accumulator_nonlocal(): """Return an accumulator function that takes a single numeric argument and accumulates that argument into total, then returns total. >>> acc = make_accumulator_nonlocal() >>> acc(15) 15 >>> acc(10) 25 >>> acc2 = make_accumulator_nonlocal() >>> acc2(7) 7 >>> acc3 = acc2 >>> acc3(6) 13 >>> acc2(5) 18 >>> acc(4) 29 """"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"total = 0 def accumulator(amount): nonlocal total total += amount return total return accumulator
make_test_dice from the Hog project.
in a sequence of numbers and returns a zero-argument function. This
zero-argument function will cycle through the list, returning one
element from the list every time. Implement
def make_test_dice(seq): """Makes deterministic dice. >>> dice = make_test_dice([2, 6, 1]) >>> dice() 2 >>> dice() 6 >>> dice() 1 >>> dice() 2 >>> other = make_test_dice() >>> other() 1 >>> dice() 6 """"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"count = 0 def dice(): nonlocal count result = seq[count] count = (count + 1) % len(seq) return result return dice
Draw environment diagrams to determine what Python would display.
>>> wolf = [1, 2, 3] >>> def dog(lst): ... def animal(ele): ... ele = [ele] + lst ... return [ele] + [beast] ... beast = [2, 3, animal] ... return beast >>> x = dog(wolf)(4) >>> x______[[4, 1, 2, 3], 2]
>>> x = 18 >>> def it(i): ... i = x ... def shifty(getting): ... nonlocal i ... i = getting + x ... def shiftier(y): ... nonlocal getting ... gettting = y*i ... return i ... return shiftier ... return shifty >>> shift = it('is')(x)(4) >>> shift______36
>>> def piper(chapman): ... chapman.append('state') ... def alex(vause): ... nonlocal chapman ... chapman = vause ... return chapman ... return alex >>> orange = piper(['litchfield', 'new york'])(['federal', 'prison']) >>> orange______['litchfield', 'prison', 'state']